Doping – it’s drugs, which are used by athletes to artificial, forced improve performance during the training process and competitive activities. Depending on the type of sports they can have very different and even opposite pharmacological actions from psychostimulant to tranquilizing, diuretic to cardiotropic of influence. Therefore, doping wrongly called stimulants. They are appointed once or course, depending on the tasks and the mechanism of action of drugs buy meldonium online. So, no one would never use anabolic steroids once and psychostimulants – course.

Judging by the publications, the conclusions of the IOC MC, dopes were applied and implemented in all countries. The reason for that – an inordinate desire to achieve top places in competitions and mercantile interests of athletes and coaches, sports organizations, of whole countries. For a large number of articles and books (especially in the USA) the last ten years on this subject have been published that describe the practical application of performance enhancing drugs in sport. They have been translated into many languages, including on Russian: see Background material on doping. Permitted and prohibited items …

It can be noted that taking doping causes numerous complications in athletes, including death. For this reason, and also because all the athletes should be in the same conditions, the IOC MC forbidden to use a number of pharmacological agents in training and competitions. Some believe that it is a violation of human rights, and each competitor is free to qualify as he wants, with or without doping them. In this case, the result of competition will depend on which country will come up with a more powerful doping scheme or rational use of known drugs, and pharmacists will compete stadiums, rather than the athletes.

Regarding the definition of doping is still no consensus, and it is extremely important to clarify, as the doping may be the cause of sanctions, appeals and litigation. Therefore, we can give the following definition, which reflects the essence of the phenomenon: “Doping is called the active substance, means and methods of artificially enhancing athletic performance, which have side effects on the body and for which there are special methods of detection.” Thus, blood doping is not a drug. It is an advance of an Athlete, treated by different methods of blood (UV and others), and then, before the competition introduced him as (blood, plasma and packed red blood cells) to increase its quantity, kislorodnotransportnoy function and non-specific stimulation by broken red and white blood cells. In addition, wires and other manipulations to create a non-traditional dosage forms and administration methods.

For example, clinicians and coaches the United States have developed specialized techniques of administration of anabolic steroids, “dog footprints in the snow,” the combination, merger, fast switching, cycle, diagram reduce the dosage scheme of increasing dosages plateau steroid jump that reflects the characteristics of the combined and long-term use of these prohibited substances so as to achieve maximum effect and not to be caught doping service expertise.

Doping written thousands of pages, while there is still no single book, where the issues of ideology, as it is possible to use not prohibited, harmless drugs of plant and animal origin.

By doping are all stimulants, a respiratory analeptic, agonists, MAO inhibitors, cholinomimetics, anticholinesterase agents, antidepressants, narcotic analgesics, cardiac glycosides, testosterone and anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, peptide hormones – growth hormone, ACTH, gonadotropins, erythropoetin and others. In addition, in all kinds of shooting prohibited beta-blockers, sodium hydroxybutyrate, tranquilizers, sleeping pills, marijuana, hashish and alcohol, and to avoid masking steroids, their rapid excretion and water – diuretics. To all groups of medicines in the list of banned drugs it has to add, “and other related compounds.” This means that it can be detected as the doping and unknown chemical structure and pharmacological action on.

Since testosterone is an endogenous substance that is accepted to count testosterone ratio, which should not (T) to epitestosterone (E) greater than 6: 1. If it is more, it is considered that the athlete introduced exogenous testosterone. However, the level of testosterone in the body can vary widely both in physiological and pathological conditions. For example, in case of reducing the excretion of epitestosterone in the blood during tumor process, functional impairment meta boliziruyuschih enzymes. If the T / E greater than six – carry out more research in three months, as well as collect data on previous studies. In addition, masking agents are prohibited and epitestosterone probenicid that hinder decoding urine.

In the practical use of these groups of drugs that artificially enhance human performance in military, aerospace (except for sports) medicine should observe moderation in their dosages, which almost never happens in a prohibited their use in sport. This leads to serious complications, sometimes lethal ending. A detailed analysis was performed side-effects of doping in our book “Doping monster.”

Another important problem that occurs sports doctor in their daily activities, – a differentiation of the combined drugs, which contain doping components, and those that are safe. In various countries, including in Russia, there have been cases where doctors prescribed pharmacological drugs containing doping (ephedrine, anabolic steroids, amphetamines, diuretics and others).

On the other hand, attempts were made to conceal the intentional doping admission, to forcibly increase the performance of athletes, alleged ignorance of the fact that they are not doping nasal drops or intra-articular injection. However, ignorance of the issue does not exempt from liability in case of detection in the assay, prohibited drugs. It is very difficult to prove the IOC MC, that there was a mistake and not a deliberate act. Therefore, it is better to consult in advance with experts, as all that is appointed by the Athlete orally or parenterally (including specialized nutrition, biologically active food supplements, vitamin complexes, geriatric drugs) have to have anti-doping certificate. This is not a superfluous measure, as the frequent provocations by sports competition, which was added to the food and drinks doping to eliminate the strong athlete from the competition.

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