Endocrinological aspects of transsexualism

Transsexualism is based on violations of the differentiation of brain structures responsible for sexual behavior, which are the biological origin of the so-called sex center responsible for the formation of a sense of gender (sexual autoidentification). Hormonal examinations showed that […]

Basic principles of hormone therapy

Patients with transsexualism need to adapt the body to the opposite biological sex, to which they themselves belong. Hormone therapy plays an important role in this. Moreover, if before the operation you can still do without hormone therapy (although it […]

Modern approaches to estrogen therapy

Estrogens (female sex hormones) are produced mainly by the ovaries, as well as by the adrenal cortex, placenta and testes. By their chemical nature, estrogens are derived from estranes – C-18-steroids. The process of converting C-19 steroids (androgens) to C-18 […]

Estrogen therapy with M / G-transsexualism

Patients with M / W-transformation require estrogen therapy. Before starting this treatment, it is recommended to measure the level of testosterone, prolactin, determine the parameters of the general and biochemical (fasting glucose, liver enzymes, lipid spectrum) blood test, coagulogram. It […]

Estrogen Intranasal Drugs

The intranasal route of estrogen administration provides a new, unique pharmacokinetic profile: “pulsating”. It is characterized by the maximum plasma concentration of estradiol which is attained rapidly, which then also quickly returns to its original level. The intranasal route of […]


Antiandrogens are necessary in M ​​/ F transgender substitution therapy, especially in the preoperative period, as they allow to reduce the dose of estrogen. In Europe and Russia, the drug of choice is cy-proterone acetate (androcur, Schering AG), which inhibits […]


Progestogen preparations themselves do not produce a feminizing effect, but they are often included in the combination therapy of patients with transsexualism, mainly as part of estrogen-gestogenic drugs. In the literature, there are quite contradictory data on the effect of […]