Eczema – an inflammatory disease of the surface layers of the skin, accompanied by polymorphism (diversity) of primary and secondary rashes and a tendency to relapse. There are acute, subacute and chronic eczema buy accutane online. All types of eczema may be limited and diffuse forms. Each type can flow weeping eczema. The chronic form of eczema often occurs in the form of dry eczema.
The causes and mechanisms of development of eczema has not been fully elucidated. It is believed that the development of eczema is very important condition of the nervous system. Of great importance in the development of eczema is the endocrine system, which has a pathological effect on the nervous system, resulting in a violation of developing sympathetic neuro-trophic regulation.
Clinically, eczema is primarily manifested hyperemia and bubbles on the skin area exposed to all this annoying effects of physical, chemical, biological and other factors. As a result of the impact of exogenous and endorazdrazhiteley and malfunction of the endocrine glands in the body creates a heightened sensitivity, predisposes to the appearance of eczema and dermatitis.
In the development of eczema involved immunopathology with 1st type of allergy and high levels of IgE in the blood, in other cases, the dysfunction is developing T-cell population. When eczema violated vascular reactions, thermoregulatory reflex, sweating, and so on. D. But this is only the background against which forms of eczema, it enables various allergens sensitize the skin and cause eczematous process. This process involves autoallergens HN that contribute to the disease. In the development of eczema is important metabolic disorder.
The reasons for violations are nervnotroficheskie, endocrine, nutritional and others. The skin has a functional relationship with the internal organs and glands of internal secretion, impairment of function that contributes to the development of eczema and dermatitis. Normally toxic products, which are formed in the gastrointestinal tract for the most weight output the external environment through the intestine, and the remaining part is absorbed in the blood and in liver detoxification subjected to further excretion through the kidneys. In case of violation of the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney toxic products of metabolism are beginning to be output through the skin in large quantities, which has a detrimental effect on her. Thus, exogenous and endogenous toxic products are constantly coming into the skin, leading to eczema appearance. From exogenous factors importance are the following: mechanical (abrasion, scratches, exposure to parasites); microbial and other contamination of the skin, disturbs the natural drainage of it; chemical; ray and thermal (hyperthermia and hypothermia). Because endogenous factors are distinguished: angiovegetativnye neuroses; functional disorders of the thyroid gland, ovaries; beriberi; gastritis, hepatitis, hepatocholecystitis, diarrhea and constipation; nephritis. Acute eczema is characterized by polymorphism rashes. The focus of eczematous skin lesions at the same time can be observed the different stages of the development of eczema.
Stage erythema manifested by local redness (erythema), an increase in temperature and strong, sometimes uncontrollable itching. The place where the eczema begins itchy, so it is subject to scratching and thus contribute to the severity of eczema infection. At this stage, the epidermis and papillary layer of the skin are in edema condition. Papular stage develops on hyperemic, somewhat edematous skin area and is characterized by the appearance of nodules (papules).
The small size of a pinhead, bespolosnye pink-red papules are raised above the skin surface. During the first days the degree of inflammatory manifestations can be reduced, and the formation of new papules stops completely. Arisen papules start to become covered with small scales, redness disappears, the skin condition comes to normal. Such a flow of eczema called papular. Previously formed papules are small blisters filled with serous contents light.
At this stage of inflammation and exudation are even more pronounced. The intercellular spaces spinous layer of accumulated serous exudate (discharge), which pushes the cells and promotes the formation of first small, then macroscopic cavities (bubbles). Serous fluid that accumulates over the papillae, lifts the epidermis and as a result the bubbles (vesicles) are formed at the site papules. Some of them are opened and the exudate is poured on the skin surface. Pustular stage is characterized by the accumulation in the Malpighian layer of the large number of leukocyte infiltration, particularly in the bubbles. Therefore, the contents of the vesicle becomes cloudy, becomes pus-like, and formed an abscess – a pustule.
After ripening burst pustules, and purulent exudate poured out. Stage weeping eczema is characterized by the appearance of papules on the spot of bright red erosion, the bottom of which is represented naked, bloodshot, swollen nipples. Of these, constantly leaks fluid, thereby reddened and swollen skin on the site of erosion is weeping. Part the hair falls out and the remaining glued to the exudate. When you add an infection all the changes more pronounced and intense.
Damaged skin (skin, devoid of the epidermal sheet) can easily become infected, which contributes to the deterioration and prolongation of the disease. With a favorable course of the weeping stage of inflammation gradually subsides, and pronounced redness within a few days is reduced, the skin becomes pale, decreases swelling of the papillary layer and the rest of the dermis. A shell stage is characterized by the appearance of crusts. This exudate, cover it dries. With free access of air accelerates the process of formation of crusts. In case of damage of the papillary layer of the crust have a dark brown color. If the formation of crusts developed on the background of the stage pustular or infected with weeping eczema, the crusts under the accumulated pus. Form a thin yellowish-green crust gradually thicken and sometimes acquire bedding. Suitable for eczema at this stage due to the reduction of inflammatory manifestations and normalization of circulation. As the process of inflammation is reduced and begins to recover the epidermis, crust rejected. The skin is slightly shiny and scaly.
The pathological process begins to form a lamellar phase. If this stage there is a change of horny scales, the dry surface of the epidermis starts abundantly covered with horny plates or smaller scales that resemble pityriasis plaque. When the inflammation completely cropped, leather acquires its original form and is covered with a normal scalp. All the above step eczematous process flow for 2-4 weeks. When unfavorable course marked delay in the weeping stage or peeling stage. In this case, eczema refers to a sub-acute form of the disease. If after some time on the site of a pre-existing eczema reappears eczematous disease process, this is called a relapsing eczema. Prolonged and recurrent course of the disease is accompanied by a thickening of the skin, redness active papillary layer, which begins to be combined with passive hyperemia less pronounced. Thickened areas of skin prone to easy damage that leads to repeated exacerbations, and as a final result of persistent changes occur in the skin and development of chronic eczema. During the chronic eczematous process in the epidermis occurs acanthosis – increased growth of spinous layer of cells, can often be observed-to parakeratosis – absence of the granular layer in the epidermis of the skin. All the previously mentioned changes in the structure of the microstructure of the skin significantly weaken its barrier, protective and other functions.